The hegemony of the entrepreneurial model does not destroy the State but fashions it in accordance with its own goals. Hence, it is outside political philosophy, moral philosophy or theory of law that we have to search if we want to resist neoliberalism. Quantifying quality. The article outlines such a biopolitics by stressing how economics and demography connect. While sketching the genealogy of economic government of population from classical theories to neoliberalism, the author highlights the role played by the notion of human capital in neoliberal rationality, and the tension it introduces between quantification of working time and qualification of population, between present and possible, and between investment and realization: what is at stake is quantifying quality, through a set of measures appraising the possible valorization of subjects.
Lecture critique Martha C. Nussbaum, The New Religious Intolerance. Presses de Sciences Po Raisons Politiques. Paperback - In French Michel Foucault's neoliberalisms.
Jeremy Kessler From Counter-History to Counter-Conduct – Foucault 13/13
DOSSIER Michel Foucault's neoliberalisms Capitalism in the light of neoliberalism Pierre Dardot This article uses Foucault's analyses on neoliberalism to show that capitalism cannot be reduced to a specific mode of production, ruled by necessary and natural economic laws the logic of capital. Title Raisons politiques 52, novembre Edition First Edition.
Author et al. Journal Raisons Politiques. ISSN Publisher Presses de Sciences Po. Audience 06 Professional and scholarly. Credit Presses de Sciences Po. Title First Published 20 December Format Paperback. Choose any opinion and you will find studies and scholars who agree with you——and those who disagree.
Because functionalism focuses on how media and technology contribute to the smooth functioning of society, a good place to begin understanding this perspective is to write a list of functions you perceive media and technology to perform. TV commercials can carry significant cultural currency. For some, the ads during the Super Bowl are more water cooler-worthy than the game itself. As you might guess, with nearly every U.
Television advertising is a highly functional way to meet a market demographic where it lives.
Sponsors can use the sophisticated data gathered by network and cable television companies regarding their viewers and target their advertising accordingly. Whether you are watching cartoons on Nick Jr.
Commercial advertising precedes movies in theaters and shows up on and inside public transportation, as well as on the sides of building and roadways. Major corporations such as Coca-Cola bring their advertising into public schools, by sponsoring sports fields or tournaments, as well as filling the halls and cafeterias of those schools with vending machines hawking their goods. With rising concerns about childhood obesity and attendant diseases, the era of soda machines in schools may be numbered.
Initiative, a ban on junk food in school began in July An obvious manifest function of media is its entertainment value. Most people, when asked why they watch television or go to the movies, would answer that they enjoy it. And the numbers certainly illustrate that. While Nielsen research shows a slight reduction of U. And the amount of time spent watching is equally large. Clearly, enjoyment is paramount.
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On the technology side, as well, there is a clear entertainment factor to the use of new innovations. From online gaming to chatting with friends on Facebook, technology offers new and more exciting ways for people to entertain themselves.
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Even while the media is selling us goods and entertaining us, it also serves to socialize us, helping us pass along norms, values, and beliefs to the next generation. In fact, we are socialized and resocialized by media throughout our whole lives. All forms of media teach us what is good and desirable, how we should speak, how we should behave, and how we should react to events.
Media also provide us with cultural touchstones during events of national significance. How many of your older relatives can recall watching the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger on television? How many of those reading this textbook followed the events of September 11 or Hurricane Katrina on television or the Internet? One recent study Krahe et al. Another group of scholars Gentile, Mathieson, and Crick found that among children exposure to media violence led to an increase in both physical and relational aggression. Yet, a meta-analysis study covering four decades of research Savage could not establish a definitive link between viewing violence and committing criminal violence.
It is clear from watching people emulate the styles of dress and talk that appear in media that media has a socializing influence. What is not clear, despite nearly fifty years of empirical research, is how much socializing influence the media has when compared to other agents of socialization, which include any social institution that passes along norms, values, and beliefs such as peers, family, religious institutions, and the like.
Like media, many forms of technology do indeed entertain us, provide a venue for commercialization, and socialize us. For example, some studies suggest the rising obesity rate is correlated with the decrease in physical activity caused by an increase in use of some forms of technology, a latent function of the prevalence of media in society Kautiainen et al.
Without a doubt, a manifest function of technology is to change our lives, sometimes for the better and sometimes for the worse. Think of how the digital age has improved the ways we communicate. Have you ever used Skype or another webcast to talk to a friend or family member far away?
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Or maybe you have organized a fund drive, raising thousands of dollars, all from your desk chair. Of course, the downside to this ongoing information flow is the near impossibility of disconnecting from technology that leads to an expectation of constant convenient access to information and people.
Such a fast-paced dynamic is not always to our benefit.
Some sociologists assert that this level of media exposure leads to narcotizing dysfunction , a result in which people are too overwhelmed with media input to really care about the issue, so their involvement becomes defined by awareness instead of by action Lazerfeld and Merton In contrast to theories in the functional perspective, the conflict perspective focuses on the creation and reproduction of inequality—social processes that tend to disrupt society rather than contribute to its smooth operation.
When we take a conflict perspective, one major focus is the differential access to media and technology embodied in the digital divide. Conflict theorists also look at who controls the media, and how media promotes the norms of upper-middle-class white people in the United States while minimizing the presence of the working class, especially people of color. Powerful individuals and social institutions have a great deal of influence over which forms of technology are released, when and where they are released, and what kind of media is available for our consumption, which is a form of gatekeeping.
Shoemaker and Voss define gatekeeping as the sorting process by which thousands of possible messages are shaped into a mass media-appropriate form and reduced to a manageable amount. In other words, the people in charge of the media decide what the public is exposed to, which, as C. With hegemonic media, a culturally diverse society can be dominated by one race, gender, or class that manipulates the media to impose its worldview as a societal norm.
New media weakens the gatekeeper role in information distribution. Popular sites such as YouTube and Facebook not only allow more people to freely share information but also engage in a form of self-policing. Users are encouraged to report inappropriate behavior that moderators will then address. In addition, some conflict theorists suggest that the way U. Those with the most money can buy the most media exposure, run smear campaigns against their competitors, and maximize their visual presence. Almost a year before the U. Some would say that the Citizens United vs.
Federal Election Committee is a major contributing factor to our unbalanced political arena. What do you think a conflict perspective theorist would suggest about the potential for the non-rich to be heard in politics, especially when SuperPACs ensure that the richest groups have the most say? Social scientists take the idea of the surveillance society so seriously that there is an entire journal devoted to its study, Surveillance and Society. The panoptic surveillance envisioned by Jeremy Bentham, depicted in the form of an all-powerful, all-seeing government by George Orwell in , and later analyzed by Michel Foucault is increasingly realized in the form of technology used to monitor our every move.
This surveillance was imagined as a form of constant monitoring in which the observation posts are decentralized and the observed is never communicated with directly. Today, digital security cameras capture our movements, observers can track us through our cell phones, and police forces around the world use facial-recognition software. What types of women are we exposed to in the media? Some would argue that the range of female images is misleadingly narrow.
Take a look at popular television shows, advertising campaigns, and online game sites.
In most, women are portrayed in a particular set of parameters and tend to have a uniform look that society recognizes as attractive. Most are thin, white or light-skinned, beautiful, and young. Why does this matter? Feminist perspective theorists believe this idealized image is crucial in creating and reinforcing stereotypes.
For example, Fox and Bailenson found that online female avatars conforming to gender stereotypes enhance negative attitudes toward women, and Brasted found that media advertising in particular promotes gender stereotypes. As early as , Ms. The gender gap in tech-related fields science, technology, engineering, and math is no secret.