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Another and this time perhaps counter-intuitive example may be that a policy on the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness could not be expected to address Group 6 Aged. Accordingly, we feel it is important to establish which vulnerable groups are included, and which are not, as the use of inclusive terminology does not necessarily address the concerns of specific vulnerable groups. While EquiFrame has been developed for the purposes of policy analysis, we do believe that its form of analysis can also be usefully applied to other types of planning and guiding documents, and that coverage of Core Concepts of human rights and inclusion of Vulnerable Groups is pertinent to a range of diverse guiding documents too.

Fuller understanding of the content of any such documents can always be and should always be strengthened by understanding of the context in which the document was developed as well as the process of its development. It is also important to stress that while we have gone to considerable lengths in the consultation and development of EquiFrame to authenticate the Core Concepts and Vulnerable Groups described, we are not necessarily claiming that these are universally applicable.

Rather that the process of deriving these concepts and vulnerable groups, is one that can be used in other settings and contexts to achieve similar ends. Finally, while we have described the analysis of existing documents across Malawi, Namibia, South Africa and Sudan, it is hoped that the utility of EquiFrame , as a policy analysis tool, will extend beyond its application as a framework for evaluation to the development of new policy documents and to the revision of existing documents.

By highlighting some high quality health policy documents, EquiFrame can navigate those developing policies towards some supreme examples of human rights coverage and vulnerable group inclusion.

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It can also provide a check-list of factors for consideration, as well as indicating specific terms and phrasing for use in a policy. The extensive gap in access to healthcare between disparate groups in developing as well as developed countries is well established [6]. In the context of low-income countries, where resources are scarce, marginalised or vulnerable people may experience greater social exclusion with the result that their right to health is undermined to an even greater extent than in wealthier countries.

Equity in healthcare is an astute and feasible political aspiration.

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If human rights and social inclusion do not underpin policy formation, it is unlikely they will be inculcated in service delivery however. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

Advancing Human-Rights-By-Design In The Dual-Use Technology Industry

PLoS One. Published online May David W. Dowdy, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Sep 1; Accepted Mar Copyright MacLachlan et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited.

LAWSG068: Comparative Human Rights Law // Professor Colm O'Cinneide

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The Framework EquiFrame evaluates the degree of stated commitment of an existing policy to 21 Core Concepts of human rights and to 12 Vulnerable Groups, guided by the ethos of universal, equitable and accessible health service provision. Core Concepts Core Concepts for relevant principles universal , equitable and accessible were identified and the available definitions were extracted from the above and related literature, resulting in 37 Core Concepts.

Scoring A data extraction matrix checklist was developed to measure the quality of the analyzed policy documents. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Table 1 The overall quality assessment of policies analyzed: Malawi. Table 2 The overall quality assessment of policies analyzed: Namibia.

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Table 3 The overall quality assessment of policies analyzed: South Africa. Table 4 The overall quality assessment of policies analyzed: Sudan. Malawi Of the fourteen Malawian analyzed, none were assessed to be of High quality. Namibia Three of the ten Namibian policies analyzed were assessed as Low quality, while three were scored as Moderate quality.

Sudan In total, sixteen Sudanese policy documents were analyzed. Discussion Our analysis has highlighted some very strong health policies across Namibia, Malawi, Sudan and South Africa, serious shortcomings in others as well as country-specific patterns. DOCX Click here for additional data file. Footnotes Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

References 1. Declaration of Alma-Ata. World Health Organization. Accessed: 20 September Towards the development of a human rights impact assessment for the formulation and evaluation of public health policies. Access to health care of persons with disabilities as an indicator of equity in health systems.

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Open Med. Equity in health care. Cuadernos de Bioetica. Ensor T, Cooper S. Overcoming barriers to health service access and influencing the demand side through purchasing. Health and human rights. United Nations, Geneva; The Right to Health. Braveman P. Monitoring equity in health and healthcare: A conceptual framework. Conceptualizing vulnerable populations health-related research. Nursing Research. Eichler M, Burke MA. Canadian Journal of Public Health. UNHCR Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees.

Accessed: 3 April Convention on the Rights of the Child. Accessed: 14 June United Nations. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Exworthy M. Policy to tackle the social determinants of health: Using conceptual models to understand the policy process. Tantivess S, Walt G. The role of state and non-state actors in the policy process: The contribution of policy networks to the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in Thailand.

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Changing fortunes: Analysis of fluctuating policy space for family planning in Kenya. Future directions for health policy analysis: A tribute to the work of professor Gill Walt.

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